Show Notes

The Shuar of the Amazon and How to Make a Shrunken Head Sources:

The Jivaro: People of the Sacred Waterfalls. Michaeil J Harner

The Science of Shrinking Human Heads: Tribal Warfare and Revenge Among the South American Jivaro-Shuar by Jandial, Hughs, Aryan, Marshall and Levy from UC San Diego

Circulation, Accumulation, and the Power of Shuar Shrunken Heads. Steven Lee Rubenstein. University of Liverpool. American Anthropological Association.

Armor and Weapons of the Spanish Conquistadors. Thought Co. https://www.thoughtco.com/armor-and-weapons-of-spanish-conquistadors-2136508

Molten Gold Was Poured Down His Throat Until His Bowels Burst. Goot, Berge, and Vos. Dept of Pathology VU University Medical Center. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1769869/

Eight Most Dangerous Rain Forest Animals. The Mysterious World. https://themysteriousworld.com/most-dangerous-amazon-rainforest-animals/

What Are the Effects of Datura Use? Sunrise House. American Addiction Centers Treatment Facilities. https://sunrisehouse.com/herbal-drugs/datura/

Ancient Alcoholic Drink’s Unusual Starter: Human Spit. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/people-and-culture/food/the-plate/2015/03/30/ancient-alcoholic-drinks-unusual-starter-human-spit/

Pizarro Executes Last Inca Emperor. History.com https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/pizarro-executes-last-inca-emperor

A Brief History of Witches. Suzannah Lipscomb. History Extra, BBC. https://www.historyextra.com/period/medieval/history-witches-facts-burned-hanged/

DNA Analysis Reveals Troubling News About Shrunken Heads. Smithsonian Channel. https://www.smithsonianchannel.com/videos/dna-analysis-reveals-troubling-news-about-shrunken-heads/56478

Shuar Minority Rights Group International. https://minorityrights.org/minorities/shuar/

Mirador Project. Corriente Copper Belt Southeast Ecuador Preliminary Assessment Technical Report. Corriente Resources, Inc. http://www.infomine.com/index/pr/Pa093256.PDF

 

A Swearing Parrot Ruined Andrew Jackson's Funeral Sources:

Andrew Jackson's Funeral

https://www.tennessean.com/story/news/2015/06/07/andrew-jacksons-funeral-drew-thousands-swearing-parrot/28664493/

Jackson's Parrot  

http://www.presidentialpetmuseum.com/pets/andrew-jacksons-pet-parrot/

 Jackson's Controversial Legacy  

https://www.history.com/news/andrew-jackson-presidency-controversial-legacy

 Jackson 

https://www.biography.com/us-president/andrew-jackson

 African Grey Parrots

https://www.worldanimalprotection.org.uk/blogs/5-surprising-facts-about-african-grey-parrots

 Trail of Tears

https://www.britannica.com/event/Trail-of-Tears

 Worcester v. Georgia

https://www.britannica.com/topic/Worcester-v-Georgia

Indian Removal Act

https://guides.loc.gov/indian-removal-act

Jackson's Cause of Death

https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1999-aug-12-me-65013-story.html 

Jackson's Assassination Attempt 

https://time.com/3676512/andrew-jackson-assassination-attempt/

Jackson

https://www.thoughtco.com/andrew-jackson-significant-facts-1773419

Land Worth in the 1800's

http://www.watersheds.org/history/earlysettlers.htm

 

Rocket Man Was a Monkey: Animals Astronauts of the Final Frontier Sources:

Ham the Astrochimp

https://airandspace.si.edu/stories/editorial/mercury-primate-capsule-and-ham-astrochimp

Space Suits

https://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=12007

The First Astronauts

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/05/130508-picture-astronaut-space-glenn-shepard-nasa-mercury-grissom/

Felicette the astrocat

http://www.collectspace.com/news/news-111717a-felicette-first-cat-space-statue.html

Laika the Space Dog

https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/laika-monument

Chimps on the endangered list

https://www.worldwildlife.org/species/chimpanzee#

Animals in space

https://www.space.com/20648-animals-in-space-history-infographic.html

More animals in space

https://www.space.com/17764-laika-first-animals-in-space.html

Terraforming?

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/02/there-s-only-one-way-for-humanity-to-survive--go-to-mars-/

 

Shackleton Series Sources:

Lansing's Book

Lansing, A. (1959). Endurance: Shackleton incredible voyage. Hodder & Stoughton.
 
Shackleton's Book
 
Shackleton, E. H. (1919). South: the story of Shackletons last expedition, 1914-1917 / by Sir Ernest Shackleton. London: William Heinemann.

Gangrene

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/158770.php#causes

The Drake Passage

https://oceanwide-expeditions.com/blog/the-wild-drake-passage

More Drake Passage

https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-features/drake-passage-waves-790748/

Rime of the Ancient Mariner

https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/43997/the-rime-of-the-ancient-mariner-text-of-1834

The Albatross and Superstition

https://people.howstuffworks.com/why-is-it-bad-luck-to-kill-albatross.htm

What Happens When We Drink Saltwater

https://science.howstuffworks.com/science-vs-myth/what-if/what-if-you-drink-saltwater1.htm

Shackleton Foundation

http://shackletonfoundation.org/?page_id=30

Wearing of the Green Song History

https://www.irishmusicdaily.com/wearing-of-the-green

Hussy’s Banjo

https://oceanwide-expeditions.com/blog/leonard-hussey-s-banjo-brain-food

Perce Blackborow

https://www.coolantarctica.com/Antarctica%20fact%20file/History/biography/blackborrow_percy.php

Oilskin

https://fashion-history.lovetoknow.com/clothing-types-styles/oilskins

Crean’s South Pole Inn

http://www.southpoleinn.com/

Pancake Ice

https://oceanwide-expeditions.com/to-do/experiences/pancake-ice 

Pareidolia

https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-22686500 

Maintaining Human Body Temperature

https://www.livestrong.com/article/538674-calories-to-maintain-human-body-temperature/

Homeotherms

https://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/medicine/body/anatomy-physio/body-temperature/warmblooded-animals-homeotherms 

Frank Wild’s Ashes

https://www.oneoceanexpeditions.com/frank-wild

Cross Seas

https://www.sciencealert.com/this-is-a-cross-sea-you-do-not-want-to-get-caught-in-one

Fate of the Crew

https://eshackleton.com/2016/09/06/the-fate-of-the-crew-2/

Fatal Leopard Seal Attack

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/leopard-seal-attacks-and-kills-british-scientist-snorkelling-off-antarctic-coast-97459.html

Leopard Seals

http://www.antarctica.gov.au/about-antarctica/wildlife/animals/seals-and-sea-lions/leopard-seals

Caloric Intake of Antarctic Explorers

https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2014/01/07/259418586/think-youre-cold-and-hungry-try-eating-in-antarctica

Mutiny on the Ice

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/news/henry-mcnish-the-shipwright-shackleton-forgot-1813181.html

McNish’s Grave

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/australasia/hero-who-rebelled-against-shackleton-is-honoured-with-statue-of-beloved-cat-733172.html

Robert Falcon Scott

https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/scott_of_antarctic.shtml

Scott Expedition’s Final Resting Place

http://mentalfloss.com/article/87394/explorers-corpse-has-been-trapped-ice-more-century

Daily Water Intake

https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/water/art-20044256

Scott’s Expedition

https://www.coolantarctica.com/Antarctica%20fact%20file/History/Robert-Falcon-Scott.php

Nimrod Expedition

https://www.ukaht.org/learn/sir-ernest-shackleton/the-british-antarctic-nimrod-expedition/

Frank Shackleton

https://www.historyireland.com/20th-century-contemporary-history/frank-shackleton/

Types of Poles

http://www.antarctica.gov.au/about-antarctica/environment/geography/poles-and-directions

The Crew

https://www.coolantarctica.com/Antarctica%20fact%20file/History/antarctic_whos_who_endurance.php

The Aurora

http://tomcreandiscovery.com/?p=788

Ross Sea Party

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/shackleton/1914/lostmen.html

Sled Dogs

https://adventure.howstuffworks.com/outdoor-activities/snow-sports/iditarod2.htm

More sled dogs

http://www.mammothdogteams.com/feeding-time-at-mammoth-dog-teams-kennel.html 

Iditarod

https://iditarod.com/about/

Scurvy

https://www.healthline.com/health/scurvy#symptoms

Ross sea party

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/shackleton/1914/lostmen.html

More Ross sea party

https://antarcticguide.com/about-antarctica/antarctic-history/heroic-age/ernest-shackleton-the-ross-sea-party-1915-17/

Shackleton’s Ad

http://discerninghistory.com/2013/05/shackletons-ad-men-wanted-for-hazerdous-journey/ 

Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic interview

https://player.fm/series/the-psychology-podcast-with-dr-scott-barry-kaufman/ep-166-why-so-many-incompetent-men-become-leaders

Brittan WW1 Casualties

https://www.britannica.com/event/World-War-I/Killed-wounded-and-missing

Ship superstitions

https://people.howstuffworks.com/why-is-it-bad-luck-to-change-name-ship.htm

Animals of the Weddell Sea

https://oceanwide-expeditions.com/blog/the-ways-and-wildlife-of-the-weddell-sea

Orca Charging Norway Surfer

https://www.earthtouchnews.com/oceans/whales-and-dolphins/expert-opinion-why-orcas-charged-surfers-during-contest-in-norway/

Tilikum

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2017/01/tilikum-seaworld-orca-killer-whale-dies/

More Tilikum

http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1968249,00.html

Polar Night

https://www.scienceabc.com/pure-sciences/midnight-sun-what-is-it-and-why-does-it-occur.html

NASA Psychological Meta-Analysis

https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20090007551.pdf

SSAD Syndrome

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2018/oct/13/polar-explorers-sad-syndrome-sufferers-new-book

Over-Winter Syndrome

http://blogs.esa.int/concordia/2018/10/12/the-winter-over-syndrome/

The Belgica Expedition

http://www.frederickcooksociety.org/today-amundsencook.htm

The Ripple Effect: Emotional Contagion and Its Influence on Group Behavior

https://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1101&context=mgmt_papers

Pressure Ridges in Sea Ice

https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/seaice/index.html

Endurance Recovery Mission 2017  

https://www.cnn.com/travel/article/antarctic-shackleton-expedition-called-off-scli-intl/index.html 

AUV Cost

https://www.marine.usf.edu/pjocean/packets/sp99/s99u2le1.pdf 

Sciatica Causes and Symptoms:

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sciatica/symptoms-causes/syc-20377435

 

A British Cowboy and the Cremation of Sam McGee Sources:

The Cremation of Sam McGee Poem:

https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/45081/the-cremation-of-sam-mcgee

Robert W. Service Bio

https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poets/robert-w-service

Another R.W.S. Bio

https://poets.org/poet/robert-w-service

 

The First Monsters Sources:

The Kraken

http://theconversation.com/the-real-life-origins-of-the-legendary-kraken-52058

Folklore

https://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveringGeology/hazards/earthquakes/mythsAndLegends.html

Jung on the Shadow Self

https://www.thesap.org.uk/resources/articles-on-jungian-psychology-2/about-analysis-and-therapy/the-shadow/

Bigfoot Laws

http://mentalfloss.com/article/87148/it-legal-shoot-bigfoot

Malawi Vampire Panic

https://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/29/weekinreview/a-fear-of-vampires-can-mask-a-fear-of-something-much-worse.html 

Vampire Burials

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-18334106

Early Monster Manuscripts

https://www.bl.uk/the-middle-ages/articles/medieval-monsters-from-the-mystical-to-the-demonic

Modern Witchcraft Laws

https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/10/when-governments-go-after-witches/280856/

Witch Hunts

https://www.history.com/topics/folklore/history-of-witches

World Literacy

http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/literacy-rate-by-country/

More World Literacy

https://ourworldindata.org/literacy

Egypt’s Monsters

https://www.thoughtco.com/egyptian-monsters-4145424 

Religion’s Monsters

http://mentalfloss.com/article/12245/11-scary-evil-monsters-world-religions

Smilodon

https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/mammal/carnivora/sabretooth.html

Why We Need Monsters

https://news.usc.edu/130364/monsters-on-our-minds-what-our-fascination-with-frightful-creatures-says-about-us/

Literature of Oldest Monsters

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/library-tales-worlds-oldest-monsters-180970471/

Early Monsters

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/books/what-to-read/trolls-demons-and-one-eyed-giants-a-history-of-monsters/

Prehistoric Predators

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/the-top-ten-deadliest-animals-of-our-evolutionary-past-18257965/

Cave Art in Spain

https://theculturetrip.com/europe/spain/articles/the-most-magnificent-cave-art-to-view-in-northern-spain/

Indonesian Rock Art

https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/science/2018/11/07/cave-art-worlds-oldest-paintings-animals-discovered-borneo/1922195002/

Chauvet Cave

https://www.ancient.eu/Chauvet_Cave/

Australian Rock Art

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/sponsored/australia-northern-territory-ancient-aboriginal-rock-art-sites-cultural-outdoor-travel-180962576/

Earliest Pigments

http://www.winsornewton.com/na/discover/articles-and-inspiration/history-of-pigments

Cave Lions

https://www.thoughtco.com/cave-lion-1093066

Etymology of Monster

https://www.etymonline.com/word/monster

 

THE SCREAMING MUMMIES OF GUANAJUATO AND A HOARD OF EGYPTIAN CATS SOURCES:

Teotihuacan

https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-americas/teotihuacan

Guanajuato History

https://www.history.com/topics/mexico/guanajuato 

Cholera

https://www.livescience.com/10212-cholera-kill.html

Cholera Today

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera

How Mummification Occurs

https://www.seeker.com/how-do-mummies-form-naturally-1792720062.html

Bog Mummies

https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/archaeology/peat-bogs-are-freakishly-good-at-preserving-human-remains.htm

Forensic Examination of Guanajuato Mummies

https://www.txstate.edu/news/news_releases/news_archive/2007/08/mummies083007.html

Guanajuato Mummies

https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/museo-de-las-momias-de-guanajuato

More Guanajuato Mummies

https://www.thevintagenews.com/2016/08/13/the-mummies-of-guanajuato-mexico-have-a-sad-history-that-dates-back-to-a-cholera-outbreak-in-1833/

Early Cat Domestication:

https://theconversation.com/earliest-evidence-of-cat-domestication-found-in-china-21552

Kitten Mummy

https://www.livescience.com/19631-mummified-kitten-offering.html 

The Divine Cat

https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/archaeology/ancient-egyptians-revered-cats-for-divine-energy.htm

Bastet

https://www.ancient.eu/Bastet/

Hobby Lobby’s Illegal Artifact Smuggling

https://www.cnn.com/2017/07/05/us/hobby-lobby-ancient-artifacts-trnd/index.html

Cat Mummies of Beni Hassan

https://www.thegreatcat.org/cat-mummies-and-tomb-paintings-at-beni-hassan/ 

Beni Hassan Cats and Auction

https://www.thevintagenews.com/2017/11/26/in-ancient-egypt-cats-were-mummified-buried-with-jewelry/

 

WHY DOES FRUITCAKE EVEN EXIST? EGGNOG, YULE LOGS, AND A CANNIBALISTIC CHRISTMAS TROLL SOURCES: 

George Washington’s Eggnog Recipe

https://www.almanac.com/content/george-washingtons-christmas-eggnog#

Colorado’s Great Fruitcake Toss

https://recipes.howstuffworks.com/menus/fruitcake3.htm

Fruitcake History

https://www.cbc.ca/kidscbc2/the-feed/the-secret-history-of-fruitcake

More Fruitcake History

https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/60595/15-fun-facts-about-fruitcake

Even More Fruitcake History

https://recipes.howstuffworks.com/menus/fruitcake.htm

Fruitcake

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/fruitcake-101-a-concise-cultural-history-of-this-loved-and-loathed-loaf-26428035/ 

Eggnog

https://www.uselessdaily.com/food/12-interesting-facts-about-eggnog-list/#.XfQydNZKifU

Eggnog Ingredients

https://www.huffpost.com/entry/what-is-eggnog-made-out-of_n_5a2aaf0ae4b069ec48acbf03

More Eggnog History

https://time.com/3957265/history-of-eggnog/

Eggnog

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/long-rich-boozy-history-eggnog-180961511/

More Eggnog Facts

https://www.uselessdaily.com/food/12-interesting-facts-about-eggnog-list/#.XfQydNZKif 

Yule

https://www.huffpost.com/entry/winter-solstice-pagan-yule_n_585970abe4b03904470af4c5

Yule Log Origins

https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/yule-log/

Yule Log Evolution

https://people.howstuffworks.com/culture-traditions/holidays-christmas/yule-log1.htm

Yule Log Broadcast History

http://content.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,1868649,00.html

Gryla

https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/568050/gryla-christmas-troll-iceland

More Gryla

https://guidetoiceland.is/connect-with-locals/regina/gryla-and-leppaludi-the-parents-of-the-icelandic-yule-lads

Even More Gryla

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/why-icelands-christmas-witch-much-cooler-and-scarier-krampus-180967605/

Icelandic Elf Belief

https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/10/why-so-many-icelanders-still-believe-in-invisible-elves/280783/ 

Fruitcakes at Royal Weddings

https://www.vogue.com/article/british-royal-wedding-fruitcake   

 

The First Robot Sources:

What is a Robot?

https://robots.ieee.org/learn/

Archytas and the Robot Pigeon

https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/13083/first-robot-created-400-bce-was-steam-powered-pigeon

Elmer and Elise

http://web.csulb.edu/~wmartinz/rssc/content/w-grey-walter-and-his-turtle-robots.html

The Unimate

https://www.robotics.org/joseph-engelberger/unimate.cfm

Robots and Human Jobs

https://www.cnbc.com/2017/11/30/robots-may-replace-up-to-800-million-workers-by-2030.html

The First Robots

https://yellrobot.com/1921-and-the-first-robots/

Shakey the Robot

https://history-computer.com/Dreamers/Shakey.html

NASA’s Rovers

https://spaceplace.nasa.gov/space-robots/en/

When Robots Kill

https://thehustle.co/when-robots-kill/

Robot History Timeline

https://www.thoughtco.com/timeline-of-robots-1992363

The Good Robot Report

https://anki.com/on/demandware.static/-/Library-Sites-anki-content-global/default/dw40cec2cf/company/blog/the-good-robot-report.pdf

Defining Robots

https://robots.ieee.org/learn/

Future of Robots

https://www.forbes.com/sites/lelalondon/2018/11/28/this-is-what-the-future-of-robots-might-do-to-humanity/#5a740d6472ae

AI Current and Future

https://emerj.com/ai-sector-overviews/artificial-intelligence-home-robots-current-future-use-cases/

Facebook’s Chatbots

https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/facebook-artificial-intelligence-ai-chatbot-new-language-research-openai-google-a7869706.html

AI and Privacy

https://towardsdatascience.com/ai-and-the-future-of-privacy-3d5f6552a7c4

Bluetooth and Privacy

https://www.wired.com/story/turn-off-bluetooth-security/

 

Olympias Part 3 Sponsor: Podcorn, a marketplace for podcasters:

https://podcorn.com/

 

Olympias Sources:

Elizabeth Carney’s Book

Carney, E. (2006). Olympias: mother of Alexander the Great. London: Routledge.

Women in Ancient Athens

https://www.greekboston.com/culture/ancient-history/role-of-women/

Animals of Ancient Greece

https://erenow.net/ancient/ancient-greece-and-rome-an-encyclopedia-for-students-4-volume-set/24.php

Greek Festivals

http://www.ancientgreece.co.uk/festivals/home_set.html

Sacrifice in Ancient Greece

https://www.learnreligions.com/method-of-sacrifice-in-ancient-greece-4079925

Ancient Greek Music

https://www.ancient.eu/Greek_Music/

Human Sacrifice in Ancient Greece

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/did-ancient-greeks-engage-human-sacrifice-180960111/

Assassination of Phillip II

https://www.ancient.eu/Greek_Music/

Zeus

https://www.thoughtco.com/profile-of-the-greek-god-zeus-111915

The Illyrians

https://www.livius.org/articles/people/illyrians/

Phillip II

https://www.biography.com/political-figure/philip-ii-of-macedon

More Phillip II

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Philip-II-king-of-Macedonia

Samothrace

https://www.ancient.eu/Samothrace/

Greek Mystery Cults

https://quatr.us/greeks/greek-mystery-cults-ancient-greece.htm

Dionysus

https://www.britannica.com/topic/Dionysus

Alexander and Prophecy

https://albanianstudies.weebly.com/alexander-the-great.html

Persian Empire

https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-middle-east/persian-empire

Phillip and Pausanias

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/classical-quarterly/article/philip-and-pausanias-a-deadly-love-in-macedonian-politics/E15C00FFA970BF2D30DA39EE1D919FDF

Battle of Chaeronea

https://www.ancient.eu/Battle_of_Chaeronea/

Attalus

https://www.livius.org/articles/person/attalus/

Battle of Thebes

https://about-history.com/battle-of-thebes-335-bc-between-alexander-the-great-and-the-city-state-of-thebes/

Alexander

https://www.livescience.com/39997-alexander-the-great.html

More Alexander

https://www.livescience.com/39997-alexander-the-great.html

Darius III

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Darius-III

Parysatis

https://www.encyclopedia.com/women/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/parysatis-ii-c-350-323-bce

Roxanne

https://www.ancient.eu/Roxanne/

Hephaestion

https://www.ancient.eu/Hephaestion/

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/01/190122115006.htm

Toxic Wine

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/mystery-of-alexander-the-greats-death-solved-ruler-was-killed-by-toxic-wine-claim-scientists-9054625.html

Wars of the Diadochi

https://www.ancient.eu/Wars_of_the_Diadochi/

Antipater

https://www.ancient.eu/Antipater/

Cynnane

https://www.ancient.eu/Cynane/

Roxane

https://www.ancient.eu/Roxanne/

Cleopatra of Macedon

https://www.livius.org/articles/person/cleopatra-of-macedonia/

 

THE EDMUND FITZGERALD SOURCES:

Great Lakes Shipwreck Museum

https://www.shipwreckmuseum.com/edmund-fitzgerald/memorial-ceremony/

The Great Lakes

https://www.livescience.com/29312-great-lakes.html

Fitzgerald Radio Transmissions

https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/hear-heartbreaking-audio-from-the-night-the-edmund-fitzgerald-sank-in-lake-superior.html

Lake Freighters

http://www.boatnerd.com/welcome.htm

Captain McSorley

https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/21175

S.S. Edmund Fitzgerald Online

https://ssedmundfitzgerald.org/blaine-h-wilhelm

Fitzgerald Wreck Theories

https://www.lakesuperior.com/the-lake/maritime/225feature/

Fitzgerald Radio Communications

https://www.postbulletin.com/news/history/years-after-sinking-last-communications-from-edmund-fitzgerald-still-haunt/article_075b50aa-01a1-11ea-b6f3-5bd6380b13c4.html

Edmund Fitzgerald Facts

https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/70951/12-doomed-facts-about-ss-edmund-fitzgerald

Daniel Hale and the Morrell

https://www.twincities.com/2016/11/30/50-years-ago-just-one-man-survived-the-great-lakes-shipwreck-youve-never-heard-of/

Lake Carriers’ Association

http://www.lcaships.com/about/

Third Man Factor

https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=112746464

Great Lakes Freighter Signals

https://www.greatlakesscuttlebutt.com/news/press-room/the-rules-of-the-road-maneuvering-sound-signals/

Stewart J. Cort Freighter

http://www.boatnerd.com/pictures/fleet/cort.htm

The Gales of November

https://www.mlive.com/weather/2014/11/the_gales_of_november_what_are.html

 

A Heroic Goat, an Angry Cat, and a Graveyard Full of Daredevils Sources:

Annie Edson Taylor

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/01/obituaries/annie-edson-taylor-overlooked.html

More Annie Edson Taylor

https://www.thevintagenews.com/2018/03/21/niagara-falls-daredevil/

Oakwood Cemetery’s Daredevil’s

https://oakwoodniagara.org/annie-edson-taylor

Niagara Daredevils

https://www.thevintagenews.com/2016/11/15/the-madness-of-the-daredevils-of-niagara-falls/

Bobby Leach, Daredevil

https://www.thevintagenews.com/2017/07/06/bobby-leach-first-man-survive-niagara-falls-barrel-plunge-died-slipping-orange-peel/

Charles Stevens, Daredevil

https://adventure.howstuffworks.com/survival/wilderness/niagara7.htm

List of Niagara Daredevils

http://www.niagarafrontier.com/darelist.html

Charles Blondin, Daredevil

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-daredevil-of-niagara-falls-110492884/

Niagara Falls History

https://www.niagarafallsusa.com/planning-tools/about-niagara-falls/history/

Niagara Falls

https://www.niagarafallslive.com/facts_about_niagara_falls.htm

Ice Ages

https://www.ancient.eu/Ice_Age/

Humans and Megafauna

https://phys.org/news/2017-01-humans-climate-australian-megafauna.html

Pleistocene

https://www.livescience.com/40311-pleistocene-epoch.html

Canada and WW1

https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/themes/defence/caf/militaryhistory/dhh/official/book-1964-expeditionary-en.pdf

Sergeant Bill Video

https://regina.ctvnews.ca/no-kidding-saskatchewan-goat-remembered-as-first-world-war-hero-1.3552611

More Sergeant Bill

https://www.storey.com/article/sue-weaver-animals-who-served-for-our/

Festubert

https://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/festubert.htm

Battle of Vimy Ridge

https://www.warmuseum.ca/the-battle-of-vimy-ridge/

Second Battle of Ypres

https://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/ypres2.htm

Neuve Chappelle

https://www.thehistorypress.co.uk/articles/neuve-chapelle-1915-the-bef-s-first-offensive/

Casualties of WW1

https://www.britannica.com/event/World-War-I/Killed-wounded-and-missing

Horses in WW1

https://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/world-war-one/the-western-front-in-world-war-one/animals-in-world-war-one/horses-in-world-war-one/

Animals of WW1

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/nov/07/animal-victims-first-world-war

Annie Edson Taylor and Her Cat

https://www.thevintagenews.com/2018/03/21/niagara-falls-daredevil/

Sergeant Billy Goat

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1686686/pdf/canvetj00372-0051.pdf

Heroic Pigeon

https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-tayside-central-17138990

Wartime Animals

https://www.iwm.org.uk/history/15-animals-that-went-to-war

 

The Elephant Angel of Belfast Sources:   

Covid-19 World Health Organization

https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200328-sitrep-68-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=384bc74c_2

1918 Flu Pandemic

https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1918-pandemic-h1n1.html

Black Plague

https://www.britannica.com/event/Black-Death

CDC on Smallpox

https://www.cdc.gov/smallpox/history/history.html

Smallpox

https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/smallpox_01.shtml

The Belfast Zoo’s Hunt for the Elephant Angel

http://www.belfastzoo.co.uk/about-us/zoo-history/elephant-angel.aspx

Sheila and Denise

https://wartimeni.com/article/belfast-blitz-sheila-the-elephant/

The Belfast Blitz

https://www.irishcentral.com/news/belfast-blitz-world-war-two

County Antrim

https://www.ireland.com/en-us/destinations/northern-ireland/county-antrim/

Belfast and the Potato Famine

https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-northern-ireland-34369080

History of Belfast

https://www.inyourpocket.com/belfast/A-Brief-History-of-Belfast_70036f

 

Miep Gies, the Dutch Resistance, and a Girl Who Changed the World Sources:

Anne Frank Remembered. The Story of the Woman Who Helped to Hide the Frank Family. By Miep Gies with Alison Gold. Simon and Schuster, New York 1987.
A new edition of the book is expected for early 2009.

Frank, Anne. The Diary of Anne Frank: The Revised Critical Edition. New York: Doubleday, 2003.

Opekta

https://www.annefrank.org/en/museum/anne-frank-collection/31/opekta-recipe-booklet/

Anne Frank

https://www.annefrank.org/en/anne-frank/

The Dutch Resistance

https://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/world-war-two/resistance-movements/the-dutch-resistance/

Miep Gies

http://www.miepgies.nl/en/

Miep Gies’s Death

https://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/12/world/europe/12gies.html

German Invasion of the Netherlands:

https://www.annefrank.org/en/anne-frank/go-in-depth/german-invasion-netherlands/

The Secret Annex: Anne Frank House Virtual Tour

https://www.annefrank.org/en/anne-frank/secret-annex/

The Dutch Resistance

https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/spring98/Dutch.html

Anne Frank’s Diary

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/how-anne-franks-diary-changed-the-world-180957215/

Anne Frank Quotes: 

https://www.goalcast.com/2018/02/27/25-anne-frank-quotes/

 

JOHN ROBERT FOX SOURCES

1997 Medal of Honor Ceremony

https://www.c-span.org/video/?77874-1/medal-honor-presentation

DoD Medal of Honor Report

https://archive.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=41466

Fox and Sommocolonia

https://www.barganews.com/2019/10/06/work-starts-on-the-tower-in-sommocolonia/

Fox and the Medal of Honor

http://www.cmohs.org/recipient-detail/2744/fox-john-r.php

Buffalo Soldiers and the Gothic Line

https://www.historynet.com/how-the-buffalo-soldiers-helped-turn-the-tide-in-italy-during-world-war-ii.htm

African American Soldiers of WW2

https://www.nationalww2museum.org/sites/default/files/2017-07/african-americans.pdf

Sommocolonia

https://www.usatoday.com/story/travel/destinations/2018/07/31/tuscany-italy-ghost-towns/863830002/

More Sommocolonia

http://www.travelguidepress.com/sommocoloniamonuments.html

The Red Ball Express

https://www.dav.org/learn-more/news/2015/black-history-month-2015-remembering-red-ball-express/

Buffalo Soldiers of WW2

https://www.militarytimes.com/military-honor/black-military-history/2018/02/14/how-the-buffalo-soldiers-helped-turn-the-tide-in-italy-during-world-war-ii/

Buffalo Soldiers

https://www.history.com/news/who-were-the-buffalo-soldiers

More on Buffalo Soldiers

https://www.history.com/topics/westward-expansion/buffalo-soldiers

Wilberforce University

https://wilberforce.edu/about-wilberforce/

African American Soldiers of WW2

https://www.militarytimes.com/military-honor/black-military-history/2018/01/30/african-american-gis-of-wwii-fighting-for-democracy-abroad-and-at-home/

African American Soldiers of WW1

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/retropolis/wp/2017/09/22/african-american-world-war-i-soldiers-served-at-a-time-racism-was-rampant-in-the-u-s/

Buffalo Soldier Museum:

https://www.buffalosoldiermuseum.com/

Executive Order 9981

https://www.britannica.com/topic/Executive-Order-9981

Dr. Mary Walker

https://www.army.mil/article/183800/meet_dr_mary_walker_the_only_female_medal_of_honor_recipient

John Robert Fox

https://www.warhistoryonline.com/history/medal-of-honor-john-r-fox-killed-himself-by-deliberately-calling-an-artillery-strike-on-his-own-position.html

 

The Prehistory of Compassion and the Search for Human Happiness Sources:

Unesco Site for the Atapuerca Mountains

https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/989/

Denisovan Jaw Bone Analysis

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-01395-0

Denisovans

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/09/ancient-dna-puts-face-mysterious-denisovans-extinct-cousins-neanderthals

Cuneiform

https://www.historyextra.com/period/ancient-egypt/cuneiform-6-things-you-probably-didnt-know-about-the-worlds-oldest-writing-system/

Psychology of Compassion

https://www.psychologicalscience.org/observer/the-compassionate-mind

Shanidar Cave Recent Excavations

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/01/new-remains-discovered-site-famous-neanderthal-flower-burial

Neanderthal Flower Burial

https://www.sciencealert.com/a-new-skeleton-at-the-flower-burial-site-is-shedding-light-on-neanderthal-funerals

Nandy the Neanderthal

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/fossils/shanidar-1

Sima de los Huesos

https://www.thoughtco.com/sima-de-los-huesos-spain-171506

Prehistoric Murder at Sima de los Huesos

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-32890697

Neanderthals and child and others

https://www.nationalgeographic.org/projects/out-of-eden-walk/articles/2015-11-the-natural-history-of-compassion/

Compassion and Prehistory

https://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/18/science/ancient-bones-that-tell-a-story-of-compassion.html

The Prehistory of Compassion

https://www.pnas.org/content/106/16/6429

Psychology of being social

https://www.nationalgeographic.org/projects/out-of-eden-walk/articles/2015-11-the-natural-history-of-compassion/

Reactive Oxygen Species

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zrwhSkeZceg

Types of Happiness

https://steemit.com/philosophy/@krnel/two-types-of-happiness-hedonistic-and-eudaimonic-happiness

Inflammation and Cancer

https://www.cancerquest.org/cancer-biology/immune-system?gclid=Cj0KCQjwtLT1BRD9ARIsAMH3BtV2f2tz5iktTw7ojuol9TErNb5za32_SK2dAVCspu8Hp1hKTo6ADhcaAs3hEALw_wcB#7

Fight or Flight

https://health.clevelandclinic.org/what-happens-to-your-body-during-the-fight-or-flight-response/